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As Jews, we must act to stop Darfur genocide
December 10th, 2004
As we joyously celebrate Chanukah, it is my hope that more American Jews will think about how they can bring the light of compassion to dark places of despair around the globe, particularly those who suffer from genocidal campaigns in Darfur, Sudan.
In this remote region, more than one and half million African tribal farmers have been violently driven from their homes by the government of Sudan and the militias they armed, called Janjaweed (evil men on horseback).
Despite repeated calls from humanitarian organizations and United Nations agencies warning of the worst humanitarian crisis in the world today, there continues to be a systematic program of expulsion, rape and murderous violence that has taken at least 100,000 lives.
As Jews, we have an increased moral obligation to respond, to speak out and take action against ethnic cleansing. The slogan never again must not be reserved for Jews alone, but in fact Jews must be the guardians of this call for action, highly sensitive and responsive to all attempts to annihilate another people.
I went to Darfur in August to bear witness, to assess humanitarian needs, and to ensure that funds provided by the American Jewish community are being and will be used effectively.
I met many of the displaced farmers and listened to their chilling stories. The government bombed their villages; men on horses rode in, often yelling ethnic slurs and shooting wildly. They stole; they raped; they killed. They stuffed wells with dead bodies or carcasses and burned villages to the ground.
I met Fatima; her five children are all ill with life-threatening diarrhea. I met a 10-year-old boy, clinging to the leg of a medical assistant, who saw his parents and two brothers shot dead.
They and over a million others fled in terror and came gradually to camps being set up to receive them now about 158 camps scattered throughout Darfur (a region the size of California).
Currently, the situation is deteriorating. The populations coming into the camps keep growing, and there is not enough food. There are too many cases of dehydration, malnutrition and deadly diarrhea. Living in close quarters like this breeds its own set of sanitation, physical and mental health problems. Mortality rates already at about 10,000 a month could rise suddenly.
Some of the Janjaweed have been outfitted by the government as police to provide security for the camps. Women still disappear or are raped when they venture out to collect firewood to use for cooking or to sell to buy food.
The United States Congress labeled the crisis a genocide in July and the Bush administration followed suit in September, but members of the U.N. Security Council, particularly Russia, China and Algeria, continue to block sanctions and other strong actions, creating deadlines and weak resolutions that are unenforceable and unheeded. U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan reported that security is declining and violence is on the upsurge.
In a reversal that demonstrates that international pressure can make a difference, the Sudanese government reluctantly agreed to allow 3,000 African Union troops to monitor the tenuous ceasefire and escort aid convoys, but they have no mandate to protect civilians. The Sudanese army and police continue to attack camps and forcibly relocate internally displaced people.
Recent reports describe government forces burning shelters, smashing water pipes, beating and shooting people, and refusing access to aid agencies. On Nov. 8, the Sudanese government signed a historical peace agreement, accepting a no-fly zone over the region and promising to disarm the Janjaweed and improve access to aid. The next day more violence was reported in camps.
The U.N. is conducting an investigation to determine whether the crisis constitutes genocide. This marks the first time in the history of the Security Council that Article 8 of the Genocide Convention has been invoked, which is a most welcome occurrence, but it is not enough by itself. By the time the assessment is complete, at least another 30,000 people will be dead.
Confronted with the realities of a grim future we must increase pressure on the U.S. government and international community to persuade the Security Council to do what must be done to end the violence and suffering.
Sudan must be forced to improve access to the camps for humanitarian aid workers and supplies, and it must be sanctioned until the Janjaweed is disarmed and the region is secured.
The African Union troops must be given an expanded mandate under Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter to protect civilians. Should the no-fly zone over Darfur be violated, enforcement by NATO forces must be authorized.
Additional humanitarian aid is desperately needed. Governments must do their part to ensure that the U.N. humanitarian programs are functioning at full capacity and meeting the vast needs. Support from individuals to non-governmental organizations providing humanitarian assistance is also essential.
American Jewish World Service launched a Sudan Emergency Appeal in April to help meet these needs. To date, $500,000 has been raised to rehabilitate water sources, construct sanitation facilities and provide therapeutic feeding centers to care for the thousands of malnourished children. I surveyed these programs when I was there and left overwhelmingly satisfied that lives are being saved.
AJWS is also providing educational and recreational materials and programs for orphaned children, zinc treatment for children suffering from diarrhea; and because rape is being used as a strategic weapon against women and their families, we are providing reproductive health care and addressing the consequences of sexual violence against women. Financial support for these efforts is critical.
The Jewish response is growing. The Jewish Coalition for Disaster Relief, comprised of 46 North American Jewish organizations, created a Jewish Coalition for Sudan Relief that has raised about $250,000, and the Reform Movement has spearheaded its own campaign, raising more than $170,000.
Until conditions are established that permit the voluntary, safe, and dignified return of those displaced by the conflict, and violators of human rights are held accountable, our diligence must not wane.
Leviticus teaches, Thou shalt not stand idly by the blood of your neighbor. This holiday season, let us celebrate with our loved ones, but let us also resolve to do all that we can to end human suffering and prevent genocide whenever, wherever and to whomever it occurs.
Ruth W. Messinger is the president and executive director of American Jewish World Service, an international development and emergency relief organization.